program

TRANSLATION & INTERPRETING STUDIES

Prof Ricardo Muñoz Martín

ORCID 0000-0001-6049-9673

1. It took 60 years to look this good! The development of Cognitive Translation & Interpreting Studies

Studying what happens in the minds of translators and interpreters may be the oldest branch of Translation Studies. In interpreting, a psycholinguistic period was followed by the practisearchers period; then the domain opened up again to multidisciplinarity and both experimental and observational research. In translation, linguistic approaches were followed by a translation process research period, where data collection methods and tools took center stage and successively focused on think-aloud techniques, keylogging, and eyetracking. Reading assignment (RA): Muñoz & Marín (2022)

2. Through a relatively new and uncharted terrain. Current trends and scopes in Cognitive Translation Studies

Constant changes in digital environments have changed the very notion of oral and written communication. While translation and interpreting profiles diversify into a palette of multiple tasks, researchers are both focusing on common constructs, such as mental lexicon and cognitive effort, and opening up to all agents in communicative events, such as readers and viewers. The old model of the mind as a computer is making room for approaches that will not isolate cognition from individual, social, and cultural factors. Current trends present a complex, fascinating scenario with a growing number of researchers and research projects. RA: Muñoz & González (2021)

3. How did you do that? Translators, interpreters, and expertise

Changing the way something is formulated to let others understand it better or at all is a natural skill, something ingrained in the way our brains work. However, to excel in that enterprise, reach some social and professional standards, and make a living out of it, you need to improve, enlarge, and diversify such a natural skill. But, what is expertise? How does it come about? What are the factors that may improve and accelerate its development? Is there a certain threshold that can be associated with professionals? Do professionals always have it? Do all professionals have the same expertise? These are some of the questions we will try to answer in this talk. RA: Hambrick et al. (2016)

4. What were you thinking? Multitasking, code-switching and metacognition

Tasks may be defined at various levels. When looking under the hood of, say, translating, we can see it consists of simultaneous and successive, alternating and overlapping, coordinated and emergent subtasks, such as typing, revising, correcting, and searching for information. Multilectal mediated communication tasks thus become more complex, and this leads both to changes in perspective on how to (mentally) behave, and also to a more strategic thinking and enhanced cognitive control—i.e. thinking about thinking, or metacognition. RA: Muñoz & Apfelthaler (2022)

5. 1000 ways of making yourself understood. The notions of meaning and translation [joint session with Prof Halverson]

On the one hand, the business of language is meaning. This is partly why linguistics has such potential for the investigation of translation and interpreting. This meaning commitment links Cognitive Linguistics to other (sub)disciplines that explore meaning-making, such as Cognitive Semiotics and Cognitive Anthropology. We will focus on how one broad approach can encompass many of the elements of meaning-making that are important in our attempts to theorize translation and interpreting. On the other hand, the business of communication is mainly, but never only, actualized through language. This makes multilectal mediated communication a fuzzy notion prone to multiple perspectives and partitions, focusing on particular tasks and subtasks, with labels such as revising, pre-editing, post-editing, sight translation/interpreting, respeaking, transcreation focusing on particular, often transitory social and market circumstances. RA: Muñoz & Rojo (2019)


PSYCHOLOGY

Prof Bogusława M. Whyatt

ORCID 0000-0003-1645-1458

1. Our translating minds. What cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics have in store for CTIS

In this introductory talk, we will review selected theoretical concepts and methodology from Cognitive Psychology and Psycholinguistics that are relevant for the study of translation and interpreting. We will dismantle the highly complex activity of translation into a range of cognitive subprocesses including word recognition, lexical access and selection, language switching, control of attention and self-monitoring. This will help us understand why translators and interpreters are sometimes called extreme bilinguals and why not every bilingual will make a good translator/interpreter. Finally, we will discuss how the methodological rigour of psycholinguistic experiments can improve research designs in CTIS. RA: De Groot (2000)

2. In and out a language of our own. Can bilingual memory models help us understand why directionality matters?

The question of how bilingual language users perform when using their L1 and L2 has been widely explored in psycholinguistic studies and resulted in several models of bilingual memory. We will examine how such models can explain the effect of directionality on the translation process and its end product. We will discuss why L2 translation has been under-researched and list methodological challenges when comparing L1 and L2 translations. RA: Tomczak & Whyatt (2022)

3. Translation psychology—the hidden aspects of translation behaviour

The question of individual differences in translation performance remains intriguing and is best included under the umbrella term of translation psychology. Aspects such as critical and creative thinking, risk-taking, flexibility, self-efficacy, resistance to stress, motivation and personality, among others, play a part in translation behaviour but are difficult to measure. We will look at the methodological tools which we have to study these hidden constructs and the way they impact the process and product of translation performance. RA: Bolaños (2022)

4. The skill of reading and the reading of translated texts—focus on eye-tracking studies

Reading is a fascinating process in which perception and cognition interact to create meaning in the mind of the reader. Eye-tracking has become a fundamental method to study reading and it has advanced our understanding of reading for translation and during the translation process (Jakobsen and Jensen 2008). One area which has attracted considerably less attention is how the experience of reading translated language differs from reading originally written language. We will discuss potential benefits and some challenges of the eye-tracking methodology in reading research and reception studies. RA: Walker (2019)

5. Brain. Mind. Body. Together and apart. Bringing together neurolinguistics and behavioural research: points of convergence and divergence [joint session with Prof Hervais-Adelman]

In this joint class we will look at methodological challenges in neurolinguistics and psycholinguistic studies of translation and interpreting. We will focus on how the study of the brain (neurolinguistics) can complement and explain the behavioural correlates recorded in psycholinguistic studies. We will consider the range of multilingual activities that are encompassed under the banner of translation and interpreting, and, with a focus on methodological challenges, why brain imaging studies have tended to focus on interpreters and psycholinguistic investigations have tended to focus on translation performance. RA: Muñoz, Calvo & García (2018)


LINGUISTICS

Prof Sandra L. Halverson

ORCID 0000-0002-7078-5718

1. Cognitive Linguistics. The basics

In this talk, the basic features of Cognitive Linguistics are introduced. The foundational characteristics that distinguish this approach to language are emphasized, and the approach is contrasted with other approaches. The main areas of study are briefly mentioned and exemplified. The aim is also to illustrate why this approach is especially well suited for the investigation of mulitlectal communication of all kinds. RA: Geeraerts (2006)

2. A tale of two disciplines. Cognitive Linguistics and Translation and Interpreting Studies

We will spell out the potential of Cognitive Linguistics for the empirical investigation and continued theorization of multilectal communication of all kinds. Picking up where the first lecture left off, i.e. why this approach is so well-suited to CTIS, several key issues within CTIS, for example, translational relationships, translation shifts, and features of translation, are linked to the Cognitive Linguistic framework. RA: Rojo & Ibarretxe (2013)

3. Castles in the mind. Schematic networks and translation

This talk illustrates the development of a specific hypothesis for translation based on Cognitive Grammar. The talk shows how the hypothesis has evolved and how the first empirical tests have been carried out. Suggestions are also made for the next stage of development in this research area. RA: Halverson (2017)

4. Translating by default. Letting translation happen

Cognitive Linguistics also provides a theoretical basis for investigating how linguistic production takes place, and how linguistic knowledge develops over time. The implications of a key idea from Cognitive Linguistics (and some psycholinguistic theories), i.e., entrenchment, are developed for translation. The construct of 'default translation' is introduced, along with its first empirical explorations in keystroke data. RA: Halverson (2019)

5. 1000 ways of making yourself understood. The notions of meaning and translation [joint session with Prof Muñoz]

On the one hand, the business of language is meaning. This is partly why linguistics has such potential for the investigation of translation and interpreting. This meaning commitment links Cognitive Linguistics to other (sub)disciplines that explore meaning-making, such as Cognitive Semiotics and Cognitive Anthropology. We will focus on how one broad approach can encompass many of the elements of meaning-making that are important in our attempts to theorize translation and interpreting. On the other hand, the business of communication is mainly, but never only, actualized through language. This makes multilectal mediated communication a fuzzy notion prone to multiple perspectives and partitions, focusing on particular tasks and subtasks, with labels such as revising, pre-editing, post-editing, sight translation/interpreting, respeaking, transcreation focusing on particular, often transitory social and market circumstances. RA: Muñoz & Rojo (2019)


NEUROSCIENCE

Prof Alexis Hervais-Adelman

ORCID 0000-0002-5232-626X

1. Studying brain and language. An introduction to the neuroscience of language

This class will constitute a very brief introduction to non-invasive neuroimaging methods that have been used in studies of Translation and interpreting (PET, MRI, EEG, and fNIRS) and to the major cerebral pathways for speech comprehension, speech production, and reading. This sets the groundwork for understanding the following classes in the series. RA: Kemmerer (2015) ch. 2 ‘Brain mapping methods’ (pp. 29–88)

2. Multilingualism and the brain. An introduction to the neural basis of multilingualism

We will build on Monday’s introduction and begin to examine issues related to how the brain handles multiple languages. We will raise issues such as where different languages are stored, and the neural basis of language switching and control. We will examine evidence from translation paradigms that indicate that controlling L1 might not be the same as controlling L2. RA: Calabria et al. (2018)

3. The neural basis of interpreting. Functional imaging investigations

Investigations of translation have shed light upon the mechanisms required for simultaneous interpreting (or conference interpreting), which requires the exquisite coordination of a vast array of cognitive skills. We will look at studies that have investigated the brain networks implicated in carrying out interpreting in both novices and experts. RA: Hervais-Adelman & Babcock (2019)

4. Expertise, interpreting, and your connectome. The cerebral consequences of expertise in interpreting

Acquiring expertise in any skill changes the brain. Here we will examine how expertise in interpreting alters the brain functionally, structurally, and in ways that might have consequences for other cognitive domains. We will particularly focus on structural plasticity associated with interpreting, and we will relate it to the more general question of how multilingualism affects the brain. RA: Pliatsikas (2019)

5. Brain. Mind. Body. Together and apart. Bringing together neurolinguistics and behavioural research: points of convergence and divergence [joint session with Prof Whyatt]

In this joint class we will look at methodological challenges in neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies of translation and interpreting. We will focus on how the study of the brain (neurolinguistics) can complement and explain the behavioural correlates recorded in psycholinguistic studies. We will consider the range of multilingual activities that are encompassed under the banner of translation and interpreting, and, with a focus on methodological challenges, why brain imaging studies have tended to focus on interpreters whereas psycholinguistic investigations have tended to focus on translation performance. RA: Muñoz, Calvo & García (2018)


RESEARCH METHODS

Prof Elisabet Tiselius

ORCID 0000-0002-2285-6729

1. The fundamentals of research methodology. How not to kill your theory with your method

This seminar will make you understand the differences between empirical and non-empirical research. We will identify the pros and cons of natural data and elicited data. We will also discuss the differences between your data collection methods and your data analysis methods. RA: Saldanha & O'Brien (2013) ch. 2.1–2.10 (pp. 11–40), ch. 4.1 (introduction) & ch. 4.2 (pp. 109–121)

2. Screen-recording, eye-tracking and key-logging. What they are and how to use them

We will discuss different types of data-collection methods, which aim to capture the ongoing translation and interpreting processes. These methods are used when the research participants are on the task. The seminar will include discussions on how to set up experiments and also on typical pitfalls in this type of data collection. Methods to analyze the data are also viewed. RA: Saldanha & O'Brien (2013) ch. 4.4 & 4.5 (pp. 132–144)

3. TAPs and Retrospection. Tapping into the process – is it at all possible?

These two tools are more and more challenging in terms of investigating the process, but may still yield interesting data. TAPs are collected during the task, and this method forces the participant to voice their process. Retrospective data are collected post-task and risk distorting the actual process. During the seminar we will see pros and cons of these types of data collection, as well as methods for data analysis. RA: Saldanha & O'Brien (2013) ch. 4.3 (pp. 122–131)

4. Questionnaires, interviews and observations. A case for meticulous preparation

Questionnaires, interviews and observations are often used in process research as complementary methods to the ones we have seen so far. Too often, they are not given enough preparation, which in turn may completely skew the data. In this seminar, we will point out the necessity to know the method behind these tools and what to do when preparing data collection. RA: Saldanha & O'Brien (2013) ch. 5 ‘Participant-oriented research’

5. Opening up CTIS research [joint session with Prof Rojo]

In this session, we will discuss publishing and open science. You will get an overview of the what, when, where and how to publish. We will also offer you input on serious journals; peer review; publication bias; publishing negative results; how to get your paper published; joint or sole publications; publishing with your supervisor; and accessible research. RA: International Science Council (2020).


EMOTIONS ARE IN

Prof Ana María Rojo López

ORCID 0000-0003-4303-9047

 

1. Emotions are cognitive, not innate

How can we define emotions and what do we know about their impact on our minds, bodies and life? This session will attempt at providing some answers by introducing some of the key theories and concepts in defining emotions. We will review some of the main known features about the role of emotions in cognition and discuss their application to CTIS. Finally, we will go over some methods to measure emotions. RA: Barret (2017) chapter 2. ‘Emotions are constructed’

2. Emotions are (NOT) lost in translation. They are more alive than ever.

How do emotions affect the translator’s work? This session will dive deeper into the role of emotions in CTIS by focusing on the emotions of translators. We will show examples of how emotions may affect their work, we will identify the main sources of emotion in translation, and we will go through some of the most representative designs and studies. RA: Rojo (2017)

3. Interpreters are not as emotionless as they may seem

What do we know about the effects of emotions on interpreters and about the factors modulating these effects? This session will review some of the CTIS works exploring the effects of stress on the interpreter’s task and also the factors that may help regulating it. RA: Korpal (2021)

4. More talk, less emotion in accessible translation. The case of audio description

What do we know about the emotional reception of translated products? This session will explore the emotional reception of translations for audio description, as a product aimed at audiences with disabilities. We will review some of the main designs and results. RA: Rojo, Ramos & Espín (2021)

5. Opening up CTIS research [joint session with Prof Tiselius]

In this session, we will discuss publishing and open science. You will get an overview of the what, when, where and how to publish. We will also offer you input on serious journals; peer review; publication bias; publishing negative results; how to get your paper published; joint or sole publications; publishing with your supervisor; and accessible research. RA: International Science Council (2020).


STATISTICS

Prof Christopher D. Mellinger

ORCID 0000-0003-4915-8821

 

1. Statistical terminology and descriptive statistics

This session introduces the basic statistical terminology needed to read and understand quantitative research, including measures of central tendency; confidence intervals and effect sizes; error, power and p-values; degrees of freedom; parametric and non-parametric testing; causality and hypothesis testing. (RA): Mellinger & Hanson (2017): ch. 6

2. Statistical tests of difference

Many studies in the field seek to differentiate between groups and rely on common statistical techniques (t-tests and ANOVA, and their corresponding nonparametric tests) to determine whether a statistically significant difference can be determined. The strengths and drawbacks of these techniques will be discussed along with best practices for reporting their results. RA: Mellinger & Hanson (2017): ch. 7 & 8

3. Statistical tests of relationship

Not all studies rely on contrasting groups based on a specific variable; some seek to establish a relationship between variables as a way to better understand how they interact. This session focuses on tests of statistical relationship, including correlational analysis and measures of reliability (intercoder reliability, internal reliability). RA: Mellinger & Hanson (2017): ch. 11

4. Reading, reporting, and replication

Performing statistical tests are only part of a researcher’s toolkit when working with quantitative research; we also need to be able to report our findings to the larger researcher community as well as understand how to read, interpret, and understand work that has used these techniques. This session focuses on best practices in reporting quantitative research across the different types of testing discussed throughout the week, while also advocating for replication to enable synthesis and meta-analysis. RA: Mellinger & Hanson (2020)

5. First, do no harm. Ethics of research in the workplace [joint session with Prof O’Brien]

This session addresses important ethical issues and quandaries that face researchers as part of research in the translation and interpreting workplace, including: access to research populations, engaged research, data collection and analysis, potential biases in quantitative and qualitative data, informed consent, anonymisation of data and research impact. RA: Bowman et al. (2022)


HCI PERSPECTIVES

Prof Sharon O’Brien

ORCID 0000-0003-4864-5986

1. Love thy neighbour. Why cognitive explorations of translation technology have to engage with the HCI world

This session will focus on interdisciplinarity. Why do cognitive explorations of translation and technology need fields like HCI? What can translation studies bring to the field of HCI? Why is interdisciplinarity important, or is it? What are the challenges involved and how might we overcome them in our own approach to research? RA: Blackwell (2015)

2. Human-machine entanglements. Translation is a human-computer interaction task

We will discuss how translation has been a human-computer interaction task for many years and how it has become even more technologised of late. The implications for the academic sector, the profession and for research will be explored. What are the important questions these days from a cognitive perspective and why do they matter? How do we get beyond debates about human vs. machine? Should we be so obsessed with post-editing? RA: O'Brien (2012)

3. Don’t worry, be happy! Translation, ergonomics and cognition. What an ergonomics perspective can contribute

We will discuss what an appreciation of ergonomics in its various facets (e.g. physical, cognitive, organisational, social, environmental) can contribute to the study of the situated activity of translation. An ergonomics perspective recognizes that translators work within systems that encompass actors in their professional environments and networks as well as factors such as source texts, tools, equipment and computer interfaces. RA: Ehrensberger-Dow (2021)

4. Antagonistic dualisms. Human-centered artificial intelligence

In this session we will explore the antagonisms that exist between humans and machines in the world of translation and we will consider the concept of augmented translation, drawn from augmented cognition. How can machine (further) augment translator performance? How would we measure that in research? And to what end? RA: O’Brien (forthcoming)

5. First, do no harm. Ethics of research in the workplace [joint session with Prof Mellinger]

This session addresses important ethical issues and quandaries that face researchers as part of research in the translation and interpreting workplace, including: access to research populations, engaged research, data collection and analysis, potential biases in quantitative and qualitative data, informed consent, anonymisation of data and research impact. RA: Bowman et al. (2022)